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Spanish Emigration to Cuba
Group of Spanish soldiers of 1898, who for most of them started a new life in Cuba after the war.
The Centro Gallego (Galician Center), an emigrants mutual assistance association
Malecon carnival celebration and emigrants ship entering Havana harbour
The most important population movements are the international migrations, the impact within culture, the economic development, social changes and ways of thinking. This happened in the Caribbean islands and Latin-American, widely marked for the Spanish and other European countries immigration. European migration to America is not a recent phenomenon. Always have there been migrations, but on a worldwide level never was so numerous and with such different characteristics like this one. In some cases it has become socioeconomic and cultural problem, in the receptive countries, like sometimes with the Spanish emigration to Latin-America.
Its interesting to know the multiple causes of the Spanish exterior emigration (economics, social, politics…), for that we need to analyse the relations between the living conditions in the origin and arrival areas. Different studies about Spanish migrations show, like causes, in one point, the Spanish traditional demographic system. Other is the Push-Pull effect: the emigration is going to depend more of the conditions of the destiny area (Cuba) that for the origin (Spain); this is confirmed, when we realise that Spain is sometimes emission country and others reception.

To Study the Spanish migrations to Cuba, we need to consider 2 points:

a. the complex circumstances that create the migration, and the effects that they produce in Cuba and in Spain.
b. After that, we need to consider the moment, the distance (Why Cuba?), the volume, the direction, the form and the caracterictics of the migratory fluxes: we mean, areas of departure, and arrival, itinerary followed, frequency of the movements, time of this movs, resources available for the emigrant, number of people that emigrates…

Milraud and Saul refer to the Spanish emigration to America, like a complex group of causes and circumstances: “A very important question about emigration is that it was done through suffering and anguish in most of cases. Sometimes the emigration was caused by the bad economic situation in the origin country, others, for the chance to find land somewhere that offer them and their families a chance; others saw new horizons or were looking for luck. Others wanted to escape from the military service or didn’t accept the official taxes; some were looking for political and religious freedom; others were paid to emigrate and other because they enjoy the adventure. Even, sometimes, was almost like a fever, an irrational common behave.” The Spanish governments changed laws from, measures to help the emigrant in the departure port and to help them in the possible return, to promote the emigration like “wide field of possibilities for the individual and for its profitable results in socio-economic and countries relations”, depending how the economic and demographic situation in Spain was…
by Maria Carmen Faus Pujol, University of Zaragoza
Article ID 538
First Article 702 of 815 Last
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