Around the year 1800, nearer the beginning of the nineteenth century, can be observed the birth of Cuban
conscience. This process was led by a brilliant group of thinkers, known in history like Cuban
All born after the English siege of Havana, this Cuban
group were members of the strongest Creole Cuban
oligarchy, educated in the modern ways of thinking and under a wide mercantile and producer experience. Their profile was of people with a wide culture and new social and economic concepts.
Francisco de Arango y Parreño is the most representative of this group. In a very early date, he started his political campaign. His proposition is a series of measures against slavery, in a constructive way, offering solutions.
At this time “Cimarronaje” or run away slaves, reached top numbers. Only in 1800s, 2000 slaves escaped from the Occident part of the island plantation
s, going to increase the “Palenques” (free communities of ex-slaves who lived in difficult access mountain areas) during the first decades of the nineteenth century.
The project, defended by the Cuban
Reformist Illustration, attacked the old medieval institutions, and proposed remodeling them or the creation of new ones. It is a proposition of change in the pedadogic methods, in the conceptions in the laws and in another theories. All this solid arguments made strong the revolution
ary concepts. The people in charge to do this change and the freedoms given by Spain to his Cuban colony
, who create different political groups. One of these agrupations will be very important in the future events, they look for inspiration in the Latin American Independentism.
Los Soles y Rayos de Bolivar (Bolivar’s Suns and Rays) were a secret association of farmers, urban medium class and part of the Cuban
“The most important result of these first conflicts, was a definitive differenciation of interests between Spanish and Cuban
native people have not yet a clear definition of themselves. Cuban
wasn’t yet a common word to denominate the Cuba natives, but was evident that there was a great difference between the interest and aspirations of the people born in Cuba and than born in Spain`, explains the specialist Eduardo Torres Cuevas. The idea of Patria (Fatherland) wasn’t clearly defined, but there were visible points to start:
The strong identification with continental Latin America, in contraposition against the Anglosaxon NorthAmerica or the European metropoli and the emerging identification with his local homeland. It was the beginning of research on the definition, Fatherland-Nation (Patria-Nacion) where a fusion of American and local valours.